Big companies choose C++ as their main programming language for back-end platform, like Google and Facebook and Yahoo and Amazon.
Hot Start-up choose Python and Node.js.
And PHP is still a good choice. Although currently, people think that is old-fashioned, if you dive into PHP, you will find something.
Personally speaking, Python and C++ is a good combination.
Here is list as far as I Know:
Other: Go, Java, Objective-C
Other: Java, D, Objective-C
Main: C++, Objective-C
Other: Python, Java
Main: C++, Java(AWS + Data)
Main: Scala, Java, Ruby
Main: Scala, Java, JRuby
Main: Java, Scala
Main: Node.js, Python
Main: Scala, Java
Main: PHP, Scala
Main: Java, Scala
Main: Go, C, C++, Ruby
The Need for Different Programming Languages in Web-Development
Initially, websites used to be monologues or mere information scripts. But today, websites have become interactive. Technology enables the user to interact with the website, post concerns, seek answers, etc. Technically, this is termed as the client-side or the front-end of the website. On the other hand, the back-end could be called as the website's kitchen comprising of the server, the database, scripts, applications, etc.
Both of these (front-end and back-end) are two different areas of operations and expertise offered by web developers. However, some developers offer comprehensive web development solutions. And yes, offering a one-stop and comprehensive web solutions will always remain in vogue!
Okay, so why is it required to learn different programming languages?
It is necessary to understand both the above aspects of the web-development business. Like I've said before, clients want comprehensive solutions. You cannot make a client run here and there, every now and then! Hence, it is always good to gain expertise in more than one language. This will help you to maintain your competence.
Different languages involve different levels of complexities, meant for different purposes. Let us have a look at the top 5 programming languages used for web development.